Multi-spectral Imaging of Polar Bears at Cochrane Polar Bear Habitat

Article Provided By: Erin Moreland

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During the first week of April, NOAA researchers from the Alaska Fisheries Science Center’s Marine Mammal Laboratory (MML) collected multi-spectral imagery of polar bears at the Cochrane Polar Bear Habitat in Ontario, Canada. Color, infrared, and ultraviolet photos were collected using two APH-28 hexacopters. This ongoing work was partially funded by the UAS Program. One platform carried the FLIR Duo Pro R camera and the other carried a new UV payload (developed by Ben Hou at MML) paired with a color camera and laser altimeter. This imagery will help improve remote sensing of bears during aerial surveys for ice-associated seals and polar bears on the sea ice habitat of the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas. The team also collected thermal data of resting bears and bears coming out of cold water to see how these behaviors affect the thermal signature detected from the airborne cameras. Multi-spectral imagery of bears on ice, in open snow fields, and near rocks will be used in the development of an automated bear detection model in support of upcoming international survey efforts of the Beaufort Sea for ice seals and polar bears.  NOAA’s Canadian partners primary focus is bears, so this work also helps build that partnership so we can get more meaningful seal data from the full Beaufort surveys. Polar bears are listed as threatened under the ESA (as are ringed and bearded seals).

Development of an Autonomous Payload for Detection of Seals and Polar Bears on Sea Ice

Article Provided By: Erin Moreland (NMFS/AFSC/NMML)

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Polar bears and Ice-associated seals (bearded, ringed, spotted, and ribbon seals) are key components of Arctic marine ecosystems and are important resources for coastal Alaska Native communities. Reliable abundance estimates for ice seals are needed for developing sound management decisions under the Marine Mammal Protection Act and extinction risk assessments under the Endangered Species Act. The animals’ broad and patchy geographic distributions and rapidly changing sea ice habitat make these species particularly challenging to study.

An autonomous payload is required to integrate UAS into surveys of ice-associated mammals, in order to improve the efficiency and human safety in gathering essential data for NOAA stewardship. Moving from occupied aircraft to long-range UAS operations will require an efficient and “smart” payload to collect images needed for abundance estimation and habitat analysis while providing situational awareness to the pilot in command.

The Alaska Fisheries Science Center’s Marine Mammal Lab is developing a system that can run advanced machine learning algorithms on-board the aircraft to process multispectral imagery in real time, minimizing the collection of extraneous imagery that requires burdensome data storage, management, and processing.  Algorithm development is utilizing a neural network approach known as YOLO, which processes imagery at a rate of 60-100 frames per second.  Over 1.8 million color and thermal images are being used to train YOLO to detect animals on the sea ice and classify detections to species. This algorithm will be tested in-flight during April 2019.